# SQL Arithmetic Expressions

### Definition of SQL Arithmetic Expressions

SQL arithmetic expressions are used to perform mathematical operations on values stored in a database. These expressions help calculate sums, differences, products, or quotients of numeric values. They are commonly used in the `SELECT`

statement to compute new values based on existing data. For example, an arithmetic expression can calculate the total cost of items in an inventory by multiplying the unit price by the quantity.

The basic arithmetic operators in SQL include:

**Addition (+)****Subtraction (-)****Multiplication (*)****Division (/)**

These operators can be combined with parentheses to control the order of operations, similar to standard mathematical expressions. SQL follows operator precedence rules, meaning multiplication and division are performed before addition and subtraction. Parentheses can be used to override this order.

In addition to these basic operators, SQL also provides predefined mathematical functions like `ABS`

(absolute value), `ROUND`

(rounding numbers), and `POWER`

(raising numbers to a power).

### Overview of Operators Used in Arithmetic Expressions

Arithmetic expressions are essential in mathematics and include operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. These operations use specific symbols called operators.

**Addition (+)**: Combines numbers together.**Subtraction (-)**: Finds the difference between numbers.**Multiplication (*)**: Calculates the product of numbers.**Division (/)**: Finds the quotient of numbers.

Special operators include:

**Exponentiation (^)**: Raises a number to a power.**Modulus (%)**: Finds the remainder of a division operation.

### Division Operator

The division operator, represented by the symbol "/", is used in both mathematics and programming to divide numbers. For instance, dividing 10 apples into 2 groups results in each group receiving 5 apples. In programming, this operator is essential for performing division and can return a quotient.

### Dividing Numerical Values

Dividing numerical values involves separating a number into equal parts based on the divisor. In division, the dividend is the number being divided, the divisor is the number by which it is divided, and the quotient is the result. For example, dividing 12 by 3 gives a quotient of 4. The process can involve whole numbers, decimals, or fractions.

### Integer Division vs. Floating-Point Division

Integer division divides two integers and returns an integer, discarding any remainder. Floating-point division, however, includes the fractional part, providing a more precise result. Integer division is faster and more efficient but less precise than floating-point division, which can handle a broader range of values.

### Using the Div Operator for Integer Division

The `div`

operator is used for integer division in programming, returning only the whole number part of the division. It can be represented by "//" in many languages. This operator is useful for evenly distributing quantities or determining how many times one quantity fits into another.

### Multiplication Operations

Multiplication combines two or more numbers to find their total value. Represented by "x" or ".", it is used in various mathematical applications, from basic arithmetic to advanced calculus. The operation involves factors multiplied together to find their product.

### Multiplication Operator

The multiplication operator is denoted by "x" or "*". It allows for repeated addition of a number to itself. It is used in arithmetic, algebra, and more advanced mathematics. This operator also has real-world applications in calculating areas, volumes, and other quantities.

### Multiplying Numerical Values

Multiplying numerical values finds their product, using the multiplication symbol (×) or simply placing numbers together. This operation can be performed using different methods, such as long multiplication or a calculator.

### Integer Multiplication vs. Floating-Point Multiplication

Integer multiplication multiplies whole numbers, resulting in a whole number. It is commonly used in programming and engineering due to its precision. Floating-point multiplication involves numbers with decimals, allowing for more precise calculations but possibly introducing rounding errors.

### Using the * Operator for Multiplication

In programming, the * operator multiplies two values together. It follows standard arithmetic rules, performing multiplication before addition or subtraction. This operator can also work with arrays or matrices, depending on the programming language.

### Subtraction Operations

Subtraction operations find the difference between two numbers. This basic operation involves taking away one number from another, denoted by the minus sign (-). It applies to whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and negative numbers, and is essential in various mathematical concepts and real-life situations.

### Subtraction Operator

The subtraction operator, represented by the symbol “-”, is used to find the difference between numbers. It is fundamental in finance, science, engineering, and basic arithmetic. Understanding the subtraction operator is crucial for building a strong mathematical foundation.

### Subtracting Numerical Values

Subtracting numerical values involves taking away one quantity from another. This operation is inverse to addition and can be performed using various methods. Subtraction is used in everyday situations and helps develop logical and critical thinking skills.